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    Nisu članice NATO: Austrija


    Posts : 66
    Join date : 19.03.2016

    Nisu članice NATO: Austrija Empty Nisu članice NATO: Austrija

    Postaj by Osprey uto oľu 29, 2016 4:16 pm

    Austrian Armed Forces // Österreichisches Bundesheer

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    The Austrian Armed Forces (German: Österreichisches Bundesheer, lit.: Austrian Federal Army) are the military of the Republic of Austria. It is divided into branches: the Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando; SKFüKdo), which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Mission Support (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ).[2]

    Austria, a landlocked country, today has no navy; from 1958 to 2006 however the Austrian army operated a naval squadron of patrol boats on the River Danube. That duty has been assumed by the Bundespolizei (Federal Police).

    The main constitutional tasks of today's Austrian military are:
    - to protect the constitutionally established institutions and the population's democratic freedoms.
    - to maintain order and security inside the country.
    - to render assistance in the case of natural catastrophes and disasters of exceptional magnitude.

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    Main article: Structure of the Austrian Armed Forces

    Structure of the Austrian Army

    Austrian Guard Company during the Bastille Day parade
    Allentsteig (157 km²) is the largest training area in Austria

    Zeltweg Air Base
    Soldiers of the 17th Infantry Battalion during a manoeuvre

    Austrian Gebirgsjäger in the Alps
    Paratroopers of the 25th Infantry Battalion exit a C-130 Hercules

    Austrian soldiers train with the StG 77

    Jagdkommando frogmen
    Under the constitution, the president is the nominal commander in chief of the armed forces. In reality, the chancellor has operational authority, exercised through the minister for national defence. The chancellor also chairs the National Defence Council, which has as its members a vice-chairman, the minister for national defence, an appointee of this minister, the general troop inspector of the armed forces, and a parliamentary representative. The minister for national defence, acting in co-operation with the minister for interior, coordinates the work of the four major committees under the National Defence Council: the Military Defence Committee; the Civil Defence Committee; the Economic Defence Committee; and the Psychological Defence Committee. The general troop inspector acts as the senior military adviser to the minister for national defence, assists the minister in the exercise of his authority, and, as head of the general staff, is responsible for planning. However, the army commander exercises direct operational control of the Bundesheer in both peacetime and wartime.

    Article 79 of the constitution, as amended in 1985, states that the army is entrusted with the military defence of the country. Insofar as the legally constituted civil authority requests its co-operation, the army is further charged with protecting constitutional institutions and their capacity to act, as well as the democratic freedoms of the inhabitants; maintaining order and security in the interior; and rendering aid in disasters and mishaps of extraordinary scope. In administering the armed forces, the Ministry for National Defence is organized into four principal sections and the inspectorate general: Section I deals with legal and legislative matters; Section II handles personnel and recruitment matters, including discipline and grievances; Section III is concerned with troop command, schools, and other facilities, and it also comprises departments G-1 through G-5 as well as a separate department for air operations; and Section IV deals with procurement and supply, quartermaster matters, armaments, and ordnance (see fig. 12).

    The general troop inspectorate is a separate section of the ministry with responsibility for co-ordination and fulfilment of the missions of the armed forces. It encompasses a general staff department, an attaché department, and planning and inspection groups.

    The armed forces consist solely of the army, of which the air force is considered a constituent part. In 1993, the total active complement of the armed forces was 52,000, of whom 20,000 to 30,000 were conscripts undergoing training of six to eight months. The army had 46,000 personnel on active duty (including an estimated 19,500 conscripts), and the air force had 6,000 personnel (2,400 conscripts).[3]

    Cold War structure
    Under the area defence strategy, which had determined the army's organizational structure until 1993, the army was divided into three principal elements: the standing alert force (Bereitschaftstruppe) of active units, including the air division; the mobile militia (Mobile Landwehr), organized as eight mechanized reserve brigades to be deployed to key danger spots in the event of mobilization; and the stationary militia (Raumgebundene Landwehr) of twenty-six reserve infantry regiments organized for territorial defence. Both the mobile militia and the stationary militia were brought up to strength only in times of mobilization or during periods allotted for refresher training, usually three weeks in June. Training of conscripts was conducted by twenty-eight training and equipment-holding regiments (Landwehrstammregimenter). On mobilization, these regiments would disband, with their cadre reassigned to lead reserve units or form replacement regiments and battalions.

    At the army level were a headquarters, guard, and special forces battalions and an artillery battalion at cadre strength. Two corps headquarters, one in the east at Graz and one in the west at Salzburg, would, on mobilization, command the provincially organized units in their respective zones. Each corps included artillery, antitank, antiaircraft, and engineering battalions and a logistics regiment, all on a cadre basis.

    Each of the nine provincial military commands supervised the training and maintenance activities of their training and equipment-holding regiments. On mobilization, these nine commands would convert to a divisional headquarters commanding mobile militia, stationary militia, and other independent units.

    The only active units immediately available in an emergency were those of the standing alert force of some 15,000 career soldiers supplemented by eight-month conscripts. The force was organized as a mechanized division consisting of three armoured infantry brigades. Each brigade was composed of one tank battalion, one mechanized infantry battalion, and one selfpropelled artillery battalion. Two of the brigades had antitank battalions equipped with self-propelled weapons. The divisional headquarters was at Baden near Vienna; the three brigades were based in separate locations, also in the northeast of the country.

    Post-Cold War structure
    The New Army Structure—the reorganization plan announced in late 1991 and scheduled to be in place sometime in 1995—replaces the previous two-corps structure with one of three corps. The new corps is headquartered at Baden, with responsibility for the two northeastern provinces of Lower Austria and Upper Austria. Army headquarters will be eliminated, as will the divisional structure for the three standing brigades. The three corps—in effect, regional commands—will be directly subordinate to the general troop inspector. The three mechanized brigades will be placed directly under the new Third Corps at Baden, although in the future one brigade may be assigned to each of the three corps. The mobile militia will be reduced from eight to six mechanized brigades. Each of the nine provincial commands will have at least one militia regiment of two to six battalions as well as local defence companies.

    Total personnel strength—both standing forces and reserves—is to be materially contracted under the new plan. The fully mobilized army will decline in strength from 200,000 to 120,000. The standing alert force will be reduced from 15,000 to 10,000. Reaction time is to be radically shortened so that part of the standing alert force can be deployed within hours to a crisis zone (for example, one adjacent to the border with Slovenia). A task force ready for immediate deployment will be maintained by one of the mechanized brigades on a rotational basis. Separate militia training companies to which all conscripts are assigned will be dismantled; in the future, conscripts will undergo basic training within their mobilization companies. Conscripts in the final stages of their training could supplement the standing forces by being poised for operational deployment at short notice.

    Promotion is not based solely on merit but on position attained, level of education, and seniority. Officers with advanced degrees (for which study at the National Defence Academy qualifies) can expect to attain grade VIII before reaching the retirement age of sixty to sixty-five. Those with a baccalaureate degree can expect to reach grade VII (colonel), and those without university training will retire as captains or majors. Career NCOs form part of the same comprehensive personnel structure. It is common for NCOs to transfer at some stage in their careers to civilian status at the equivalent grade, either in the Ministry for National Defence or in the police or prison services after further training.

    Main article: Austrian Air Force
    Austria's air force ("Luftstreitkräfte") has as its missions the defence of Austrian airspace, tactical support of Austrian ground forces, reconnaissance and military transport, and search-and-rescue support when requested by civil authorities.

    Until 1985, when the first of twenty-four Saab 35 Draken were delivered, the country had remained essentially without the capacity to contest violations of its airspace. The Drakens, reconditioned after having served the Swedish Air Force since the early 1960s, were armed, in accordance with the restrictions on missiles in the State Treaty of 1955, only with a cannon. However, following Austria's revised interpretation of its obligations under the treaty, a decision was made in 1993 to procure AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. The first of these missiles were purchased from Swedish air force inventory, while later a higher performance model was acquired directly from the United States, with deliveries commencing in 1995. French Mistral surface-to-air missiles systems were purchased to add ground-based protection against air attack. The first of the systems arrived in Austria in 1993; final deliveries concluded in 1996.

    The Drakens were retired in 2005 and 12 F-5E Tiger II were leased from Switzerland to avoid a gap in the Austrian air defence capabilities until the first Austrian Eurofighter Typhoon units became operational in 2007. Besides one squadron of 15 Eurofighter Typhoons, the air force has a squadron with 28 Saab 105 trainers, which double as reconnaissance and close air support planes.

    The helicopter fleet includes 23 AB 212 helicopters used as light transport. 24 French Alouette III are in service as search-and-rescue helicopters. Furthermore, the air force fields 11 OH-58B Kiowa as light scout helicopters. After Austria had to request assistance from the United States Army, Swiss Air Force, French Air Force, and German Bundeswehr to evacuate survivors after the 1999 Galtür Avalanche a decision was taken to equip the Austrian Air Force with medium-sized transport helicopters. Thus in 2002 Austria acquired 9 UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters. In 2003 the air force received 3 C-130K Hercules transport aircraft to support the armed forces in their UN peacekeeping and humanitarian activities.

    Austrian Special Operations Forces
    Main article: Jagdkommando
    The Jagdkommando (lit. Hunting Command) is the Austrian Armed Forces' Special Operations group. The duties of this elite unit match those of its foreign counterparts, such as the United States Army Special Forces, being amongst others Counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency. Jagdkommando soldiers are highly trained professionals whose thorough and rigorous training enables them to take over when tasks or situations outgrow the capabilities and specialization of conventional units.

    Unit disposition map
    Austrian Armed Forces is located in Austria ARMY COMMANDARMY COMMAND GuardGuard Air Surveillance CommandRadar Btn.Air Surveillance Command
    Radar Btn. Air Surveillance Sqn.Air Surveillance Sqn. 2 Air-def. Btn.2 Air-def. Btn. Air Support CommandAir Support Command Air Support SqnAir Support Sqn 3 Infantry Brigade3 Infantry Brigade 33 Infantry33 Infantry 35 Mech. Inf.35 Mech. Inf. 19 Infantry19 Infantry 3 Recon3 Recon 3 Engineer3 Engineer 4 Mech. Brigade4 Mech. Brigade 14 Armored14 Armored 13 Mech. Inf.13 Mech. Inf. 12 Infantry12 Infantry 4 Artillery & Recon4 Artillery & Recon 6 Infantry Brigade6 Infantry Brigade 23 Infantry23 Infantry 24 Infantry24 Infantry 26 Infantry26 Infantry 2 Engineer2 Engineer 7 Infantry Brigade7 Infantry Brigade 17 Infantry17 Infantry 18 Infantry18 Infantry 25 Infantry25 Infantry 7 Artillery & Recon7 Artillery & Recon 1 Engineer1 Engineer Special OperationsSpecial Operations
    Austrian Armed Forces - major units
    Personnel, Conscription, Training, and Reserves[edit]

    Ulan of the 35th Mechanized Infantry Battalion

    Bundesheer soldiers with MG74 and StG 77 during a manoeuvre

    Engineers from the 2nd Engineer Battalion building a bridge during an exhibition in the city of Salzburg

    Crowd and riot control training

    Leopard 2 and M88 Recovery Vehicle of the 14th Tank Battalion

    Soldiers on parade on Austrian National Day 2006.

    Paratroopers of the 25th Infantry Battalion
    Until 1971 Austrian males were obligated to serve nine months in the armed forces, followed by four days of active service every two years for training and inspection. In 1971 the period of initial service was reduced to six months, followed by a total of sixty days of refresher training in the reserves. In the early 1990s, about 45,000 conscripts completed their initial military training every year, and 80,000 reservists participated in some form of exercises each year.

    Reducing the mobilization strength of the army to 120,000 under the New Army Structure plan is to be accomplished in part by limiting initial training of recruits to six months, followed by reducing the period allotted for refresher training from twenty years to ten years. Each reservist is to receive training over a twelve-day period every second year during his first ten years of reserve duty, generally not extending beyond the time he reaches his mid-thirties. The reduced need for conscripts corresponds to a lower pool of young men because of a declining birth rate. The availability of about 40,000 fit trainees annually in 1993 was expected to fall to barely 30,000 by 2000 and to 26,000 by 2015.

    In 2006 conscription was reduced to six months total. Mandatory reserve training was abolished. Since then the army reserve battalions (Miliz) are suffering from a lack of new reservists and are therefore overaging.

    Under a 1974 law, conscientious objectors can be assigned work as farm labourers, medical orderlies, or other occupations in lieu of military service. Exemptions from service are liberally granted—in 1992 about 12,000 persons were exempted, a great increase over the 1991 total of 4,500. The increase occurred after a new law, valid only for 1992 and 1993, no longer required young men to present their objections to the military in a credible way. Previously, that had not been the case. In 1990, for example, two young men rejected by the alternate service commission on the grounds that they did not present their beliefs in a credible manner were sentenced to prison terms of three months and one month, respectively.

    Conscripts may attain the rank of private first class by the completion of initial training. Those with leadership potential may serve a longer period to obtain noncommissioned officer (NCO) status in the militia. Those volunteering for the career service can, after three to four years, apply to attend the NCO academy and later a senior NCO course to qualify as warrant officers. Both regular and militia officer candidates undergo a one-year program of basic training. After a further three years, regular officer candidates attending the military academy at Wiener Neustadt and militia officer candidates undergoing periodic intensified refresher training qualify as second lieutenants. The reserve obligation of conscripts generally ends by the time they reach their mid-thirties; NCOs and officers usually end their reserve status at a later age depending on their rank and specialization. By the early 1990s, some 1.3 million men had completed their initial service and refresher training obligations and had no further active-duty commitment.

    The military personnel system is an integral part of a comprehensive civil service system. The nine officer ranks from officer candidate through general correspond to grades I through IX of the civil service system. The highest grade, IX, may be occupied by a section chief (undersecretary), a career ambassador, or a three-star general. A grade VIII position may be held by a departmental counselor, a career minister, or a brigadier general. Salary levels are the same for both civil and military personnel in the equivalent grades, although various allowances may be added, such as flight pay or hazardous-duty pay.

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    Join date : 19.03.2016

    Nisu članice NATO: Austrija Empty Re: Nisu članice NATO: Austrija

    Postaj by Osprey uto oľu 29, 2016 4:18 pm

    Austrija kreće sanirati štete od štednje u obrani

    Za razliku od Hrvatske, Austrija je za dio migrantskoga vala koje se valjao tzv. balkanskom rutom postala i konačno odredište – zemlja u kojoj je dio ljudi azil zatražio s namjerom da se to pravo i stvarno konzumira u toj državi. Time je 2015. postala daleko rekordna godina po pitanju u Austriji podnesenih zahtjeva za azilom, gdje je brojka od oko 90 tisuća takvih registriranih osoba čak tri puta iznad usporedivih brojki za 2014. godinu (koje su nekad bile smatrane rekordnima), ili oko šest puta više od prosjeka za period 2006.-2013. – koji iznosi 14.284,5 zahtjeva na godinu. Činjenica da je Republika Austrija ocijenila kako za neko vrijeme ne može primati ljude ovim ili većim ritmom, itekako je
    doprinijela odluci o zatvaranju granice – koja je prvo dogovorena u Bruxellesu, provedena na schengenskoj granici Slovenije i Hrvatske, da bi se onda 
    u domino-stilu prelila dalje niz zemlje na "balkanskoj ruti" kretanja migranata u smjeru jugoistoka.

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    na ionako problematičnu granicu Grčke i Makedonije. Time je i Austrija ostala “iza zida”, što je samo privremeno dalo daha migrantskoj politici te zemlje.

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    Naime, za razliku od većeg broja zemalja koje su samo tranzitne na migrantskoj ruti, ali i Hrvatske koja je privremeni smještaj migranata rješavala centralizirano – Austrija pristigle migrante i one koji u zemlji ostanu tražeći azil smješta decentralizirano, u pojedinim zajednicama, a počesto i pri obiteljima stanovnika koji se izjasne spremnima takve ljude privremeno primiti. Za 2016. godinu vlasti u Beču postavile su maksimalnu granicu prijema na 37.500 tražitelja azila, a u posljednje se vrijeme bilježi oko 100 zahtjeva na dan. Ti bi se planovi mogli održati samo održanjem i čitavog lančanog sustava kontrole dolaska daljnjih migranata – o čemu su određene sumnje već izrazili i aktualni predsjednik Austrije Heinz Fischer (SPÖ), kao i ministrica unutarnjih poslova Johanna Mikl-Leitner (ÖVP).

    Kriza i obrambeni sustav Austrije
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    Polaganje prisege u Beču

    Iako je prije desetak godina bio sastavljen plan reformi, koje su Oružane snage Austrije trebale prilagoditi novome dobu, po tom se pitanju iznimno malo konkretno poduzelo. Dok je Günter Platter, ministar obrane Austrije od veljače 2003. do siječnja 2007. godine, najavljivao brojne reformske zahvate, osnova poduzetih promjena svodila se tek na linearno smanjivanje negdašnje hladnoratovske obrambene vojske, a u samoj se Austriji moglo čuti i da su provođeni
    tek oni jeftini i popularni zahvati</a>. Pri tome, odlučujući je utjecaj na čitav obrambeni resor imalo kontinuirano financijsko izgladnjivanje. Ne samo da nije bilo ništa od dostizanja proklamiranog cilja, godišnjeg izdvajanja od 1 posto BDP za obranu, već su tijekom godina nastavljani i daljnji rezovi. Potrebne su investicije odlagane, u situaciji u kojoj je Michael Spindeleger (do 2014. ministar financija, ali i vicekancelar, te čelnik velike stranke ÖVP) istodobno i rezao sredstva i poručivao kolegi da “ne izgladnjuje austrijski Bundesheer“

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    Dok se ovim proračunskim pritiscima 2013. željelo doskočiti prelaskom Austrije na profesionalnu vojsku (što bi sa sobom nužno nosilo i radikalne promjene) – odluka o zadržavanju postojećeg sustava odgodila je reforme, bez da je u isto vrijeme zaustavljen i daljnji pad raspoloživih novčanih sredstava za obranu. Stranka desnoga centra ÖVP je tu slavila pobjedu nad političkim rivalima, da bi baš ministar Gerald Klug (iz referendumom poražene SPÖ) u okviru velike koalicije nastavio masivan projekt smanjivanja resursa – koji je sredstva za obranu u 2016. godini doveo na oko 0,55 posto BDP-a (uz Irsku, Luksemburg i Maltu najmanje u EU). Po referendumu iz 2013. godine ubrzano se krenulo dijeliti nekretnine, konzervirati višak teže opreme i otkazivati vježbe (gdje su zabilježeni i slučajevi da za odlazak na neke od njih jednostavno nije bilo goriva). U proteklih 10 godina je tako broj stalno zaposlenih u obrani s oko 33.000 ljudi pao na 21.300, da bi u zadnje vrijeme i za njih praktično pa nestalo novca, a sustav se našao pred realnom prijetnjom financijskog i operativnog bankrota.

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    Pripreme za KFOR obuhvaćaju i danas traženu obuku za suzbijanje urbanih nemira

    Sve ove okolnosti je tijekom prošle godine na vidjelo donijela migrantska kriza, za čije rješavanje se ondje poseglo za potpuno istim političkim sredstvima koja posljednje vrijeme vidimo i u Hrvatskoj. Vojska je u javnosti predstavljena kao dio rješenja za izbjeglički val, bez obzira na stvarno stanje njihove opreme, obuke i realne spremnosti za suočavanja s takvim prijetnjama. Političkom scenom Austrije proširio se pogled da tu samo treba proglasiti “gornju granicu” dopuštenog ulaska migranata u državu, s bitno manje javnoga govora o mogućnosti da bi se takvo ograničenje možda moralo i silom provoditi prema državama susjedima – sve to u situaciji kada je raspoređivanje oko 1.500 austrijskih vojnika na teren praktično pokazalo granice djelovanja uz postojeća novčana sredstva. Umjesto sustavnog odgovora na sve to, Austrija je krajem 2015. godine u proračun za 2016. godinu tek uvrstila ratu privremenog povećanja sredstava za obranu, gdje je oko 90 milijuna dodatnih eura (prema 2015. godini) tamošnji obrambeni proračun trebalo dići na prividno respektabilnih 2,07 milijardi eura. Pri tome, paralelno zahtjevima za prijeko potrebnom novom opremom, povećanjem opsega djelovanja, te produljenjem trajanja služenja vojne obveze (što bi sve lako moglo koštati i milijardu eura više od aktualnog izdvajanja), čuli su se i zahtjevi za daljnjim uštedama – od onih malih (prebacivanjem vojnih orkestara na trošak resora kulture), pa sve do onih velikih (gašenje ratnog zrakoplovstva, te odustajanje od borbenih zrakoplova Eurofighter).

    Novi ministar za novo vrijeme

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    Policijski načelnik Hans Peter Doskozil uz austrijsku ministricu unutarnjih poslova Johannu Mikl-Leitner 2015. godine

    Ove diskusije su kulminirale početkom tekuće godine, kada je postalo jasno da će obrana, ovoga puta za promjenu od standarda, biti tema i predstojeće kampanje za biranje predsjednika Austrije, na izborima zakazanima za nedjelju, 24. travnja. U kadrovskome preslagivanju Vlade Austrije, koje je stranka SPÖ objavila 13. siječnja ove godine – tri su resora promijenila svoje dosadašnje čelnike, ne bi li se obveza oslobodio Rudolf Hundstorfer, dotadašnji ministar rada, socijale i zaštite potrošača, a od 15. siječnja 2016. i predsjednički kandidat stranke SPÖ. Pri tome, dosadašnji ministar obrane Gerald Klug prešao je u resor infrastrukture i prometa, da bi na njegovom mjestu u Ministarstvu obrane i sporta 26. siječnja i službeno osvanuo Hans Peter Doskozil iz pokrajine Burgenland. Ovaj lokalni političar i policajac je i u Austriji bio prilično nepoznat sve do početka prošle godine, kada je kao čelnik pokrajinske policije kompetentno vodio istragu o 71 mrtvom migrantu pronađenom u kamionu kod Parndorfa, nedaleko Beča – jednako kao i austrijski odgovor na migrantski val koji je državu lani pogodio iz smjera susjedne im Mađarske. I dok se tako neki hvataju osobe novog ministra kao eksperta za sigurnost i migrantsku krizu, ujedno i vještog u postupanju tijekom teških situacija, drugima jednostavno ne odgovara činjenica da je policajac tu došao na čelo obrambenoga resora.

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    Polaganje prisege pri predsjedniku Austrije Heinzu Fischeru, 26. siječnja 2016. godine

    Karijera Hansa Petera Doskozila je stvarno suštinski vezana uz policiju. Rođen 1970. godine, on je 1989. odslužio šest mjeseci vojnoga roka i onda se zaposlio kao policajac u Beču. Tijekom idućih 15 godina uspinjao se razinama te državne službe i školovao uz rad, da bi 2004. godine u resoru unutarnjih poslova preuzeo i vodeće funkcije – prvo u Ministarstvu u Beču, a onda i u pokrajini Burgenland. Od 2008. godine djelovanje u lokalnoj politici pokrajine Burgenland kombinirao je sa službom u pokrajinskome poglavarstvu (gdje je 0d 2010. do 2012. bio i voditelj ureda Hansa Niessla, pokrajinskog poglavara iz redova SPÖ), da bi od 2012. do siječnja 2016. spojio to svoje političko i profesionalno djelovanja – mjestom policijskog načelnika pokrajine Burgenland. Čitavo se to vrijeme iz upućenih izvora moglo čuti kako Hansa Petera Doskozila čeka karijera – jedino nije bilo do kraja jasno da li na pokrajinskoj ili saveznoj razini. No, ta dilema se riješila sredinom siječnja ove godine, kada je Doskozil osvanuo na čelu resora obrane Republike Austrije.</p>

    Kuda ide obrambeni sustav Austrije?

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    Načelnik Glavnog stožera OS Austrije Othmar Commenda i ministar obrane Doskozil

    Kao dio postupka sastavljanja novog državnog proračuna Austrije, novi je ministar obrane predstavio svoje prijedloge za jačanje strukture, kapaciteta i opreme Oružanih snaga Austrije – što je tema koja trenutno, barem na načelnoj razini, uživa i široku političku podršku u Austriji. Iako je primjetni dio sadržaja mjera predloženih u okviru novog “strateškog dokumenta” zapravo već duže prisutan u tematskim raspravama, sada se izgleda ipak krenulo zaustavljati paket štednje usvojen od prošlog ministra obrane Geralda Kluga. Pri tome, nove se investicije izgleda misli opravdavati kako širim prijetnjama (Ukrajina, Bliski istok, Sjeverna Afrika), tako i migrantskom krizom koja je vidljivo napregla austrijske obrambene kapacitete, te prijetnjom terorizma – novom i aktualnom etiketom na omotu resora sigurnosti. No, dok je nekad podjela poslova u državi bila jasna – vojska je čuvala granice, a policija sigurnost u državi – danas su tu potencijalne zadaće vojske bitno nejasnije. U slučaju djelovanja terorista u Austriji, jedino je nedvojbeno da se od Oružanih snaga očekuje zaštita kritične nacionalne infrastrukture, elektrana, brana i drugih sličnih objekata.</p>

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    Hans Jörg Schelling, ministar financija Austrije.

    Reformski proces koji je navodno pokrenut posljednjih tjedana trebao bi u svojim osnovnim crtama biti dogotovljen do 10. lipnja ove godine – ne bi li njegove usuglašene novine na snagu stupile 1. siječnja 2017. godine. Iako je jasno kako sve zamislive promjene trebaju novaca, o financijskim gabaritima traženih reformi se novi ministar Doskozil do sada izjašnjavao tek načelno, govoreći o “jasnome signalu” za ministra financija Hansa Jörga Schellinga (stranka ÖVP), od kojeg se pak moglo čuti kako je i ovako obrana nešto dobila – tijekom prošle godine je ionako odlučeno da se za obranu doda 350 milijuna eura u periodu između 2016. i 2019. godine, što je onda bilo ugrađeno i u aktualni proračun. No, prema iskazanim potrebama, ta će sredstva vjerojatno biti temeljito nedostatna.

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    Postrojba “Jagdkommando” (JaKdo) ima bazu u mjestu Wiener Neustadt.

    Među te potrebe spadaju strukturne promjene ustroja samog Ministarstva obrane i Oružanih snaga Austrije. Uz općenite mjere uklanjanja strukturnih dupliranja, u Ministarstvu bi tako od dosadašnjih pet sekcija trebale ostati njih samo četiri : “Pravni i kadrovski poslovi”
    (1) “Sport”
    (2) “Osiguravanje spremnosti”
    (3) “Djelovanja”
     kao zadnje, dok bi se dosadašnja peta po redu sekcija “Planiranje” prebacila u okvir Glavnog stožera. U Oružanim snagama bi trebalo prepoloviti broj dosadašnjih velikih strukturnih cjelina, od 16 na njih 8, uz podjelu dosadašnjeg Zapovjedništva za vođenje Oružanih snaga na “Zapovjedništvo Kopno” (uključujući u njega i Snage za odgovor na krize), te “Zapovjedništvo Zrak”.
    Uz to bi postojeća vojna zapovjedništva širom Austrije trebala u svoj sastav čvršće obuhvatiti postrojbe milicije (pričuve organizirane u 10 lovačkih bojni, jednu logističku bojnu, jednu pionirsku satniju, te jednu postrojbu za odgovor na katastrofe), kao i sustav obuke ročnika – čiji bi broj trebalo povećati (ili barem stabilizirati) odvraćanjem mladih od civilnog služenja vojne obveze, kao i ukupnim dizanjem privlačnosti vojnoga sustav za žene. Za sve to trebaju i prostori – tako da se odustalo od zatvaranja i prodaje čitavog niza vojarni (Horn, Freistadt, Lienz, Bleiburg, Tamsweg) – barem do lipnja ove godine i ishoda tekućih reformskih diskusija.

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    Austrijski S-70A-42 Black Hawk.

    Što se kadrova tiče, predviđeno je bitno jačanje vojne specijalne postrojbe “Jagdkommando”. Vjerojatno je to dio općenitog povećanja broja neposredno borbeno spremnih snaga, koje bi od sadašnjih 2.200 ljudi trebalo ubrzano povećati na 2.500 ljudi, uz dugoročnu želju dostizanja snage visoke spremnosti od ukupno 6.000 ljudi. Uz sve probleme s pribavljanjem kadra, ovdje bi trebala pomoći i činjenica da se od takvog ljudstva očekuje i služba u inozemstvu – gdje osobna primanja bitno unapređuje postojanje posebnog “Dodatka za inozemstvo”, kojeg se u iznosu od 50 posto dobiva i tijekom priprema za odlazak, kao i jedno vrijeme po povratku iz takve inozemne misije. Uz to se planira pribavljanje dodatnih liječnika i stručnjaka za hitnu medicinu, kojima bi trebalo dobaviti i module zračno-pokretnog saniteta, kao i oklopljena sanitetska vozila. Bilo je izričitog govora i o općenitoj potrebi za dodatnim oklopljenim vozilima (prvenstveno tipovi – Pandur, Dingo), o dodatnoj zaštitnoj opremi za djelatno ljudstvo (kacige, pancirni prsluci, uređaji za noćno djelovanje, osobna NBK oprema), kao i za postrojbe milicije – gdje navodno od ukupno 10 bojni, njih devet zapravo nema modernu opremu. Uz to, ministar Doskozil je spomenuo i pribavljanje bespilotnih letjelica, te sustava za zaštitu od protivničkih bespilotnih letjelica, a na repertoaru je ponovo osvanula i ideja nabave dodatna tri helikoptera tipa <span class="st">Sikorsky </span>Black Hawk, čime bi se njihov ukupan broj u Austriji popeo na 12. Riječ je o letjelicama o čijoj se kupovini govori još od 1999. godine (od tragične lavine koja je 23. veljače te godine pogodila alpsko mjesto Galtür u Tirolu), da bi oni opet bili izričitim ciljem obrambenog resora i 2014. godine – što je i tada, kao i više puta prije toga, bilo odgađano zbog štednje, budući se ni za postojećih 9 letjelica nisu uvijek mogla pronaći potrebna sredstva za održavanje iz redovitog obrambenog proračuna. Imajući sve to u vidu, zapravo je iznimno teško reći što će se od svih tih ideja i planova u Austriji zapravo i ostvariti.

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    Nisu članice NATO: Austrija Empty Re: Nisu članice NATO: Austrija

    Postaj by Osprey čet lip 16, 2016 12:57 am

    NATO Relations with Austria

    Last updated: 07 Apr. 2016 13:23
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    NATO-Austria relations are conducted through the Partnership for Peace framework, which Austria joined in 1995. NATO and Austria actively cooperate in peace support operations, and have developed practical cooperation in a range of areas.
    NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen meets with the President of Austria, Heinz Fischer.

    NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and the President of Austria, Heinz Fischer (June 2011)

    NATO highly values its relations with Austria. The Allies view Austria as an effective partner and contributor to international security, which shares key values such as the promotion of international security, democracy and human rights. Austria selects areas of practical cooperation with NATO that match joint objectives.

    An important area of cooperation is the country’s support for NATO-led operations. Austria has worked alongside the Allies in security and peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and currently has personnel deployed in Afghanistan and Kosovo.

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    Nisu članice NATO: Austrija Empty Re: Nisu članice NATO: Austrija

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      Sada je: pon oľu 20, 2023 4:26 pm.